兵制

兵制一有明之兵制,盖三变矣:卫所之兵,变而为召募,至崇祯、弘光间又变而为大将之屯兵。卫所之弊也,官军三百十三万八千三百,皆仰食于民,除西北边兵三十万外,其所以御寇定乱者,不得不别设兵以养之。

兵分于农,然且不可,乃又使军分于兵,是一天下之民养两天下之兵也。召募之弊也,如东事之起,安家、行粮、马匹、甲仗费数百万金,得兵十余万而不当三万之选,天下已动矣。大将屯兵之弊也,拥众自卫,与敌为市,抢杀不可问,宣召不能行,率我所养之兵反而攻我者,即其人也。有明之所以亡,其不在斯三者乎?

议者曰:卫所之为召募,此不得已而行之者也,召募之为大将屯兵,此势之所趋而非制也。原夫卫所,其制非不善也。

一镇之兵足守一镇之地,一军之田足瞻一军之用,卫所、屯田,盖相表里者也。其后军伍销耗,耕者无人,则屯粮不足,增以客兵,坐食者众,则屯粮不足,于是益之以民粮,又益之以盐粮,又益之以京运,而卫所之制始破坏矣。都燕而后,岁漕四百万石,十有二总领卫一百四十旗,军十二万六千八百人,轮年值运,有月粮,有行粮,一人兼二人之食,是岁有二十五万三千六百不耕而食之军矣。此又卫所之制破坏于输挽者也。

中都、大宁、山东、河南附近卫所,轮班上操,春班以三月至八月还,秋班以九月至二月还,有月粮,有行粮,一人兼二人之食,是岁有二十余万不耕而食之军矣。此又卫所之制破坏于班操者也。一边有事则调各边之军,应调者食此边之新饷,其家口又支各边之旧饷。旧兵不归,各边不得不补,补一名又添一名之新饷,是一兵而有三饷也。卫所之制,至是破坏而不可支矣。凡此皆末流之弊,其初制岂若是哉!

为说者曰:末流之弊,亦由其制之不善所致也,制之不善,则军民之太分也。凡人膂力不过三十年,以七十为率,则四十年居其老弱也。军既不得复还为民,则一军之在伍,其为老弱者亦复四十年,如是而焉得不销耗乎?乡井之思,谁则无有?今以谪发充之,远者万里,近者千余里,违其土性,死伤逃窜十常八九,如是而焉得不销耗乎?且都燕二百余年,天下之财莫不尽取以归京师,使东南之民力竭者,非军也耶?

或曰:畿甸之民大半为军,今计口而给之,故天下有荒岁而畿甸不困,此明知其无益而不可已者也。曰:若是,则非养兵也,乃养民也。天下之民不耕而待养于上,则天下之耕者当何人哉?东南之民奚罪焉!夫以养军之故至不得不养及于民,犹可谓其制之善与?

余以为天下之兵当取之于口,而天下为兵之养当取之于户。其取之口也,教练之时五十而出二,调发之时五十而出一、其取之户也,调发之兵十户而养一,教练之兵则无资于养。如以万历六年户口数目言之,人口六千六十九万二千八百五十六,则得兵一百二十一万三千八百五十人矣,人户一千六十二万一千四百三十六,则可养兵一百六万二千一百四十三人矣。

夫五十口而出一人,则其役不为重;一十户而养一人,则其费不为难;而天下之兵满一百二十余万,亦不为少矣。王畿之内,以二十万人更番入卫,然亦不过千里,假如都金陵,其入卫者但尽今陵所属之郡邑,而他省不与焉。金陵人口一千五十万二千六百五十一,则得胜兵二十一万五百,以十万各守郡邑,以十万入卫,次年则以守郡邑者入卫,以入卫者归守郡邑,又次年则调发其同事教练之兵。

其已经调发者则住粮归家,但听教练而已。夫五十口而出一人,而又四年方一行役,以一人计之,二十岁而入伍,五十岁而出伍,始终三十年,止历七践更耳,而又不出千里之远,则为兵者其任亦不为过劳。国家无养兵之费则国富,队伍众老弱之卒则兵强。人主欲富国强兵而兵民太分,唐、宋以来但有彼善于此之制,其受兵之害,末尝不与有明同也。

兵制二

国家当承平之时,武人至大帅者,干谒文臣,即其品级悬绝,亦必戒服,左握刀,右属弓矢,帕首裤靴,趋入庭拜,其门状自称走狗,退而与其仆隶齿。兵兴以后,有言于天子者曰:“今日不重武臣,故武功不立。”于是毅宗皇帝专任大帅,不使文臣节制。不二三年,武臣拥众,与贼相望,同事虏略。李贼入京师,三辅至于青、齐诸镇,栉比而营,大子封公侯结其欢心,终莫肯以一矢入援。呜呼,毅宗重武之效如此!

然则武固不当重与?曰:毅宗轻武而不重武者也。武之所重者将;汤之伐桀,伊尹为将;武之入商,太公为将;晋作六军,其为将者皆六卿之选也。有明虽失其制,总兵皆用武人,然必听节制于督抚或经略。则是督抚、经略,将也;总兵,偏裨也。总兵有将之名而无将之实,然且不可,况竟与之以实乎!

夫安国家,全社稷,君子之事也;供指使,用气力,小人之事也。国冢社稷之事,孰有大于将?使小人而优为之,又何贵乎君子耶?今以天下之大讬之于小人,为重武耶,为轻武耶?是故与毅宗从死者,皆文臣也。当其时,属之以一旅,赴贼俱死,尚冀十有一二相全,何至自殊城破之日乎?是故建义于郡县者,皆文臣及儒生也。当其时,有所藉手以从事,胜负亦未可知,何至驱市人而战,受其屠醢乎?彼武人之为大帅者,方且飙浮云起,昔之不敢一当敌者,乘时易帜,各以利刃而齿腐朽,鲍永所谓以其众幸富贵矣,而后知承平之时待以仆隶者之未为非也。

然则彭越、黥布非古之良将与?曰:彭越、黥布,非汉王将之者也,布、越无所藉于汉王而汉王藉之,犹治病者之服乌喙藜芦也。人见彭越、黥布之有功而欲将武人,亦犹见乌喙藜芦之愈病而欲以为服食也。彼粗暴之徒,乘世之衰,窃乱天常,吾可以权授之,使之出落钤键也哉!然则叔孙通专言斩将搴旗之士,儒生无所言进,何也?曰:当是时,汉王已将韩信,彼通之所进者,以首争首、以力搏力之兵子耳,岂所谓将哉?然则壮健轻死善击刺者,非所贵与?曰:壮健轻死善击刺之在人,犹致犀利之在器甲也。

弓必欲无灂,治必欲援 之称,甲必欲上旅下旅札续之坚,人必欲壮健轻死善击刺,其道一也。器甲之致犀利,用之者人也;人之壮健轻死善击刺者,用之者将也。今以壮健轻死善击刺之人而可使之为将,是致犀利之器甲可以不待人而战也。兵制三

唐、宋以来,文武分为两途。然其职官,内而枢密,外而阃帅州军,犹文武参用。惟有明截然不相出入,文臣之督抚,虽与军事而专任节制,与兵士离而不属。是故莅军者不得计饷,计饷者不得莅军;节制者不得操兵,操兵者不得节制。方自以犬牙 制,使其势不可为叛。

夫天下有不可叛之人,未尝有不可叛之法。杜牧所谓“圣贤才能多闻博识之士”,此不可叛之人也。豪猪健糠之徒,不识礼义,喜虏掠,轻去就,缓则受吾节制,指顾簿书之间,急则拥兵自重,节制之人自然随之上下。试观崇祯时,督抚曾有不为大帅驱使者乎?此时法未尝不在,未见其下可叛也。

有明武职之制,内设郡督府,锦衣卫,外设二十一都司,四百九十三卫,三百五十九所;平时有左右都督、都指挥使、指挥使,各系以同知、佥事及千户、百户、镇抚之级,,行伍有总兵、副将、参将、游击、千把总之名、宜悉罢平时职级,只存行伍。京营之兵,兵部尚书即为总兵,侍郎即为副将,其属郎官即分任参、游。设或征讨,将自中出,侍郎挂印而总兵事,郎官从之者一如京营,或用巡抚为将,巡抚挂印,即以副将属之参政,参将属之郡守,其行间战将勇略冠军者,即参用于其间。苟如近世之沈希仪、万表、俞大猷、戚继光,又未尝不可使之内而兵部,外而巡抚也。

自儒生久不为将,其视用兵也,一以为尚力之事,当属之豪健之流;一以为谋之事,当属之倾危之士。夫称戈比干立矛者,士卒之事而非将帅之事也,即一人以力闻,十人而胜之矣。兵兴以来,田野市井之间膂力稍过人者,当事即以奇士待之,究竟不当一卒之用。万历以来之将,掩败饰功,所以欺其君父者何所不至,亦可谓之倾危矣。乃止能施之君父,不能施之寇敌。然则今日之所以取败亡者,非不足力与谋可知矣。

使文武合为一途,为儒生者知兵书战策非我分外, 之而知其无过高之论,为武夫者知亲上爱民为用武之本,不以粗暴为能,是则皆不可叛之人也。

拼音版对照

bing zhi yi you ming zhi bing zhi, gai san bian yi: wei suo zhi bing, bian er wei zhao mu, zhi chong zhen、 hong guang jian you bian er wei da jiang zhi tun bing。 wei suo zhi bi ye, guan jun san bai shi san wan ba qian san bai, jie yang shi yu min, chu xi bei bian bing san shi wan wai, qi suo yi yu kou ding luan zhe, bu de bu bie she bing yi yang zhi。

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yi zhe yue: wei suo zhi wei zhao mu, ci bu de yi er xing zhi zhe ye, zhao mu zhi wei da jiang tun bing, ci shi zhi suo qu er fei zhi ye。 yuan fu wei suo, qi zhi fei bu shan ye。

yi zhen zhi bing zu shou yi zhen zhi di, yi jun zhi tian zu zhan yi jun zhi yong, wei suo、 tun tian, gai xiang biao li zhe ye。 qi hou jun wu xiao hao, geng zhe wu ren, ze tun liang bu zu, zeng yi ke bing, zuo shi zhe zhong, ze tun liang bu zu, yu shi yi zhi yi min liang, you yi zhi yi yan liang, you yi zhi yi jing yun, er wei suo zhi zhi shi po huai yi。 dou yan er hou, sui cao si bai wan shi, shi you er zong ling wei yi bai si shi qi, jun shi er wan liu qian ba bai ren, lun nian zhi yun, you yue liang, you xing liang, yi ren jian er ren zhi shi, shi sui you er shi wu wan san qian liu bai bu geng er shi zhi jun yi。 ci you wei suo zhi zhi po huai yu shu wan zhe ye。

zhong dou、 da ning、 shan dong、 he nan fu jin wei suo, lun ban shang cao, chun ban yi san yue zhi ba yue hai, qiu ban yi jiu yue zhi er yue hai, you yue liang, you xing liang, yi ren jian er ren zhi shi, shi sui you er shi yu wan bu geng er shi zhi jun yi。 ci you wei suo zhi zhi po huai yu ban cao zhe ye。 yi bian you shi ze tiao ge bian zhi jun, ying tiao zhe shi ci bian zhi xin xiang, qi jia kou you zhi ge bian zhi jiu xiang。 jiu bing bu gui, ge bian bu de bu bu, bu yi ming you tian yi ming zhi xin xiang, shi yi bing er you san xiang ye。 wei suo zhi zhi, zhi shi po huai er bu ke zhi yi。 fan ci jie mo liu zhi bi, qi chu zhi qi ruo shi zai!

wei shuo zhe yue: mo liu zhi bi, yi you qi zhi zhi bu shan suo zhi ye, zhi zhi bu shan, ze jun min zhi tai fen ye。 fan ren lv li bu guo san shi nian, yi qi shi wei lv, ze si shi nian ju qi lao ruo ye。 jun ji bu de fu hai wei min, ze yi jun zhi zai wu, qi wei lao ruo zhe yi fu si shi nian, ru shi er yan de bu xiao hao hu? xiang jing zhi si, shui ze wu you? jin yi zhe fa chong zhi, yuan zhe wan li, jin zhe qian yu li, wei qi tu xing, si shang tao cuan shi chang ba jiu, ru shi er yan de bu xiao hao hu? qie dou yan er bai yu nian, tian xia zhi cai mo bu jin qu yi gui jing shi, shi dong nan zhi min li jie zhe, fei jun ye ye?

huo yue: ji dian zhi min da ban wei jun, jin ji kou er gei zhi, gu tian xia you huang sui er ji dian bu kun, ci ming zhi qi wu yi er bu ke yi zhe ye。 yue: ruo shi, ze fei yang bing ye, nai yang min ye。 tian xia zhi min bu geng er dai yang yu shang, ze tian xia zhi geng zhe dang he ren zai? dong nan zhi min xi zui yan! fu yi yang jun zhi gu zhi bu de bu yang ji yu min, you ke wei qi zhi zhi shan yu?

yu yi wei tian xia zhi bing dang qu zhi yu kou, er tian xia wei bing zhi yang dang qu zhi yu hu。 qi qu zhi kou ye, jiao lian zhi shi wu shi er chu er, tiao fa zhi shi wu shi er chu yi、 qi qu zhi hu ye, tiao fa zhi bing shi hu er yang yi, jiao lian zhi bing ze wu zi yu yang。 ru yi wan li liu nian hu kou shu mu yan zhi, ren kou liu qian liu shi jiu wan er qian ba bai wu shi liu, ze de bing yi bai er shi yi wan san qian ba bai wu shi ren yi, ren hu yi qian liu shi er wan yi qian si bai san shi liu, ze ke yang bing yi bai liu wan er qian yi bai si shi san ren yi。

fu wu shi kou er chu yi ren, ze qi yi bu wei zhong; yi shi hu er yang yi ren, ze qi fei bu wei nan; er tian xia zhi bing man yi bai er shi yu wan, yi bu wei shao yi。 wang ji zhi nei, yi er shi wan ren geng fan ru wei, ran yi bu guo qian li, jia ru dou jin ling, qi ru wei zhe dan jin jin ling suo shu zhi jun yi, er ta sheng bu yu yan。 jin ling ren kou yi qian wu shi wan er qian liu bai wu shi yi, ze de sheng bing er shi yi wan wu bai, yi shi wan ge shou jun yi, yi shi wan ru wei, ci nian ze yi shou jun yi zhe ru wei, yi ru wei zhe gui shou jun yi, you ci nian ze tiao fa qi tong shi jiao lian zhi bing。

qi yi jing tiao fa zhe ze zhu liang gui jia, dan ting jiao lian er yi。 fu wu shi kou er chu yi ren, er you si nian fang yi xing yi, yi yi ren ji zhi, er shi sui er ru wu, wu shi sui er chu wu, shi zhong san shi nian, zhi li qi jian geng er, er you bu chu qian li zhi yuan, ze wei bing zhe qi ren yi bu wei guo lao。 guo jia wu yang bing zhi fei ze guo fu, dui wu zhong lao ruo zhi zu ze bing qiang。 ren zhu yu fu guo qiang bing er bing min tai fen, tang、 song yi lai dan you bi shan yu ci zhi zhi, qi shou bing zhi hai, mo chang bu yu you ming tong ye。

bing zhi er

guo jia dang cheng ping zhi shi, wu ren zhi da shuai zhe, gan ye wen chen, ji qi pin ji xuan jue, yi bi jie fu, zuo wo dao, you shu gong shi, pa shou ku xue, qu ru ting bai, qi men zhuang zi cheng zou gou, tui er yu qi pu li chi。 bing xing yi hou, you yan yu tian zi zhe yue:“ jin ri bu zhong wu chen, gu wu gong bu li。” yu shi yi zong huang di zhuan ren da shuai, bu shi wen chen jie zhi。 bu er san nian, wu chen yong zhong, yu zei xiang wang, tong shi lu lve。 li zei ru jing shi, san fu zhi yu qing、 qi zhu zhen, zhi bi er ying, da zi feng gong hou jie qi huan xin, zhong mo ken yi yi shi ru yuan。 wu hu, yi zong zhong wu zhi xiao ru ci!

ran ze wu gu bu dang zhong yu? yue: yi zong qing wu er bu zhong wu zhe ye。 wu zhi suo zhong zhe jiang; tang zhi fa jie, yi yin wei jiang; wu zhi ru shang, tai gong wei jiang; jin zuo liu jun, qi wei jiang zhe jie liu qing zhi xuan ye。 you ming sui shi qi zhi, zong bing jie yong wu ren, ran bi ting jie zhi yu du fu huo jing lve。 ze shi du fu、 jing lve, jiang ye; zong bing, pian bi ye。 zong bing you jiang zhi ming er wu jiang zhi shi, ran qie bu ke, kuang jing yu zhi yi shi hu!

fu an guo jia, quan she ji, jun zi zhi shi ye; gong zhi shi, yong qi li, xiao ren zhi shi ye。 guo zhong she ji zhi shi, shu you da yu jiang? shi xiao ren er you wei zhi, you he gui hu jun zi ye? jin yi tian xia zhi da? zhi yu xiao ren, wei zhong wu ye, wei qing wu ye? shi gu yu yi zong cong si zhe, jie wen chen ye。 dang qi shi, shu zhi yi yi lv, fu zei ju si, shang ji shi you yi er xiang quan, he zhi zi shu cheng po zhi ri hu? shi gu jian yi yu jun xian zhe, jie wen chen ji ru sheng ye。 dang qi shi, you suo ji shou yi cong shi, sheng fu yi wei ke zhi, he zhi qu shi ren er zhan, shou qi tu hai hu? bi wu ren zhi wei da shuai zhe, fang qie biao fu yun qi, xi zhi bu gan yi dang di zhe, cheng shi yi zhi, ge yi li ren er chi fu xiu, bao yong suo wei yi qi zhong xing fu gui yi, er hou zhi cheng ping zhi shi dai yi pu li zhe zhi wei wei fei ye。

ran ze peng yue、 qing bu fei gu zhi liang jiang yu? yue: peng yue、 qing bu, fei han wang jiang zhi zhe ye, bu、 yue wu suo ji yu han wang er han wang ji zhi, you zhi bing zhe zhi fu wu hui li lu ye。 ren jian peng yue、 qing bu zhi you gong er yu jiang wu ren, yi you jian wu hui li lu zhi yu bing er yu yi wei fu shi ye。 bi cu bao zhi tu, cheng shi zhi shuai, qie luan tian chang, wu ke yi quan shou zhi, shi zhi chu luo qian jian ye zai! ran ze shu sun tong zhuan yan zhan jiang qian qi zhi shi, ru sheng wu suo yan jin, he ye? yue: dang shi shi, han wang yi jiang han xin, bi tong zhi suo jin zhe, yi shou zheng shou、 yi li bo li zhi bing zi er, qi suo wei jiang zai? ran ze zhuang jian qing si shan ji ci zhe, fei suo gui yu? yue: zhuang jian qing si shan ji ci zhi zai ren, you yi jing yi zhi xi li zhi zai qi jia ye。

gong bi yu wu??, zhi bi yu yuan yi hu yi zhi cheng, jia bi yu shang lv xia lv zha xu zhi jian, ren bi yu zhuang jian qing si shan ji ci, qi dao yi ye。 qi jia zhi yi jing yi zhi xi li, yong zhi zhe ren ye; ren zhi zhuang jian qing si shan ji ci zhe, yong zhi zhe jiang ye。 jin yi zhuang jian qing si shan ji ci zhi ren er ke shi zhi wei jiang, shi yi jing yi zhi xi li zhi qi jia ke yi bu dai ren er zhan ye。 bing zhi san

tang、 song yi lai, wen wu fen wei liang tu。 ran qi zhi guan, nei er shu mi, wai er kun shuai zhou jun, you wen wu can yong。 wei you ming jie ran bu xiang chu ru, wen chen zhi du fu, sui yu jun shi er zhuan ren jie zhi, yu bing shi li er bu shu。 shi gu li jun zhe bu de ji xiang, ji xiang zhe bu de li jun; jie zhi zhe bu de cao bing, cao bing zhe bu de jie zhi。 fang zi yi quan ya yi jiao yi zhi, shi qi shi bu ke wei pan。

fu tian xia you bu ke pan zhi ren, wei chang you bu ke pan zhi fa。 du mu suo wei“ sheng xian cai neng duo wen bo shi zhi shi”, ci bu ke pan zhi ren ye。 hao zhu jian kang zhi tu, bu shi li yi, xi lu lve, qing qu jiu, huan ze shou wu jie zhi, zhi gu bu shu zhi jian, ji ze yong bing zi zhong, jie zhi zhi ren zi ran sui zhi shang xia。 shi guan chong zhen shi, du fu zeng you bu wei da shuai qu shi zhe hu? ci shi fa wei chang bu zai, wei jian qi xia ke pan ye。

you ming wu zhi zhi zhi, nei she jun du fu, jin yi wei, wai she er shi yi dou si, si bai jiu shi san wei, san bai wu shi jiu suo; ping shi you zuo you dou du、 dou zhi hui shi、 zhi hui shi, ge xi yi tong zhi、 qian shi ji qian hu、 bai hu、 zhen fu zhi ji,, xing wu you zong bing、 fu jiang、 can jiang、 you ji、 qian ba zong zhi ming、 yi xi ba ping shi zhi ji, zhi cun xing wu。 jing ying zhi bing, bing bu shang shu ji wei zong bing, shi lang ji wei fu jiang, qi shu lang guan ji fen ren can、 you。 she huo zheng tao, jiang zi zhong chu, shi lang gua yin er zong bing shi, lang guan cong zhi zhe yi ru jing ying, huo yong xun fu wei jiang, xun fu gua yin, ji yi fu jiang shu zhi can zheng, can jiang shu zhi jun shou, qi xing jian zhan jiang yong lve guan jun zhe, ji can yong yu qi jian。 gou ru jin shi zhi shen xi yi、 wan biao、 yu da you、 qi ji guang, you wei chang bu ke shi zhi nei er bing bu, wai er xun fu ye。

zi ru sheng jiu bu wei jiang, qi shi yong bing ye, yi yi wei shang li zhi shi, dang shu zhi hao jian zhi liu; yi yi wei yi? yi mou zhi shi, dang shu zhi qing wei zhi shi。 fu cheng ge bi gan li mao zhe, shi zu zhi shi er fei jiang shuai zhi shi ye, ji yi ren yi li wen, shi ren er sheng zhi yi。 bing xing yi lai, tian ye shi jing zhi jian lv li shao guo ren zhe, dang shi ji yi qi shi dai zhi, jiu jing bu dang yi zu zhi yong。 wan li yi lai zhi jiang, yan bai shi gong, suo yi qi qi jun fu zhe he suo bu zhi, yi ke wei zhi qing wei yi。 nai zhi neng shi zhi jun fu, bu neng shi zhi kou di。 ran ze jin ri zhi suo yi qu bai wang zhe, fei bu zu li yu yi? yi mou ke zhi yi。

shi wen wu he wei yi tu, wei ru sheng zhe zhi bing shu zhan ce fei wo fen wai, yi xi yi zhi er zhi qi wu guo gao zhi lun, wei wu fu zhe zhi qin shang ai min wei yong wu zhi ben, bu yi cu bao wei neng, shi ze jie bu ke pan zhi ren ye。

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