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荣辱

  憍泄者,人之殃也;恭俭者,偋五兵也。虽有戈矛之刺,不如恭俭之利也。故 与人善言,暖于布帛;伤人之言,深于矛戟。故薄薄之地,不得履之,非地不安也, 危足无所履者,凡在言也。巨涂则让,小涂则殆,虽欲不谨,若云不使。

  快快而亡者、怒也,察察而残者、忮也,博而穷者、訾也,清之而俞浊者、口 也,豢之而俞瘠者、交也,辩而不说者、争也,直立而不见知者、胜也,廉而不见 贵者、刿也,勇而不见惮者、贪也,信而不见敬者、好剸行也。此小人之所务,而 君子之所不为也。

  斗者,忘其身者也,忘其亲者也,忘其君者也。行其少顷之怒,而丧终身之躯, 然且为之,是忘其身也;家室立残,亲戚不免乎刑戮,然且为之,是忘其亲也;君 上之所恶也,刑法之所大禁也,然且为之,是忘其君也。忧忘其身,内忘其亲,上 忘其君,是刑法之所不舍也,圣王之所不畜也。乳彘触虎,乳狗不远游,不忘其亲 也。人也,忧忘其身,内忘其亲,上忘其君,则是人也,而曾狗彘之不若也。

  凡斗者,必自以为是,而以人为非也。己诚是也,人诚非也,则是己君子,而 人小人也;以君子与小人相贼害也,忧以忘其身,内以忘其亲,上以忘其君,岂不 过甚矣哉!是人也,所谓以狐父之戈钃牛矢也。将以为智邪?则愚莫大焉;将以为 利邪?则害莫大焉;将以为荣邪?则辱莫大焉;将以为安邪?则危莫大焉。人之有 斗,何哉?我欲属之狂惑疾病邪?则不可,圣王又诛之。我欲属之鸟鼠禽兽邪?则 又不可,其形体又人,而好恶多同。人之有斗,何哉?我甚丑之。

  有狗彘之勇者,有贾盗之勇者,有小人之勇者,有士君子之勇者。争饮食,无 廉耻,不知是非,不辟死伤,不畏众强,牟牟然惟利饮食之见,是狗彘之勇也。为 事利,争货财,无辞让,果敢而振,猛贪而戾,牟牟然惟利之见,是贾盗之勇也。 轻死而暴,是小人之勇也。义之所在,不倾于权,不顾其利,举国而与之不为改视, 重死持义而不桡,是士君子之勇也。

  鯈魾者,浮阳之鱼也,胠于沙而思水,则无逮矣。挂于患而思谨,则无益矣。 自知者不怨人,知命者不怨天;怨人者穷,怨天者无志。失之己,反之人,岂不迂 乎哉!

  荣辱之大分,安危利害之常体:先义而后利者荣,先利而后义者辱;荣者常通, 辱者常穷;通者常制人,穷者常制于人:是荣辱之大分也。材悫者常安利,荡悍者 常危害;安利者常乐易,危害者常忧险;乐易者常寿长,忧险者常夭折:是安危利 害之常体也。

  夫天生蒸民,有所以取之:志意致修,德行致厚,智虑致明,是天子之所以取 天下也。政令法,举措时,听断公,上则能顺天子之命,下则能保百姓,是诸侯之 所以取国家也。志行修,临官治,上则能顺上,下则能保其职,是士大夫之所以取 田邑也。循法则、度量、刑辟、图籍、不知其义,谨守其数,慎不敢损益也;父子 相传,以持王公,是故三代虽亡,治法犹存,是官人百吏之所以取禄职也。孝弟原 悫,軥录疾力,以敦比其事业,而不敢怠傲,是庶人之所以取暖衣饱食,长生久视, 以免于刑戮也。饰邪说,文奸言,为倚事,陶诞突盗,惕悍憍暴,以偷生反侧于乱 世之间,是奸人之所以取危辱死刑也。其虑之不深,其择之不谨,其定取舍楛僈, 是其所以危也。

  材性知能,君子小人一也;好荣恶辱,好利恶害,是君子小人之所同也;若其 所以求之之道则异矣:小人也者,疾为诞而欲人之信己也,疾为诈而欲人之亲己也, 禽兽之行而欲人之善己也;虑之难知也,行之难安也,持之难立也,成则必不得其 所好,必遇其所恶焉。故君子者,信矣,而亦欲人之信己也;忠矣,而亦欲人之亲 己也;修正治辨矣,而亦欲人之善己也;虑之易知也,行之易安也,持之易立也, 成则必得其所好,必不遇其所恶焉。是故穷则不隐,通则大明,身死而名弥白。小 人莫不延颈举踵而愿曰:“知虑材性,固有以贤人矣。”夫不知其与己无以异也。 则君子注错之当,而小人注错之过也。故孰察小人之知能,足以知其有余,可以为 君子之所为也。譬之越人安越,楚人安楚,君子安雅。是非知能材性然也,是注错 习俗之节异也。仁义德行,常安之术也,然而未必不危也;污僈突盗,常危之术也, 然而未必不安也。故君子道其常,而小人道其怪。

  凡人有所一同:饥而欲食,寒而欲暖,劳而欲息,好利而恶害,是人之所生而 有也,是无待而然者也,是禹桀之所同也。目辨白黑美恶,耳辨声音清浊,口辨酸 咸甘苦,鼻辨芬芳腥臊,骨体肤理辨寒暑疾养,是又人之所常生而有也,是无待而 然者也,是禹桀之所同也。可以为尧禹,可以为桀跖,可以为工匠,可以为农贾, 在埶注错习俗之所积耳。是又人之所生而有也,是无待而然者也,是禹桀之所同也。 为尧禹则常安荣,为桀跖则常危辱;为尧禹则常愉佚,为工匠农贾则常烦劳;然而 人力为此,而寡为彼,何也?曰:陋也。尧禹者,非生而具者也,夫起于变故,成 乎修为,待尽而后备者也。人之生固小人,无师无法则唯利之见耳。人之生固小人, 又以遇乱世,得乱俗,是以小重小也,以乱得乱也。君子非得埶以临之,则无由得 开内焉。今是人之口腹,安知礼义?安知辞让?安知廉耻隅积?亦呥呥而嚼,乡乡 而饱已矣。人无师无法,则其心正其口腹也。今使人生而未尝睹刍豢稻粱也,惟菽 藿糟糠之为睹,则以至足为在此也,俄而粲然有秉刍豢稻梁而至者,则瞲然视之曰: 此何怪也?彼臭之而嗛于鼻,尝之而甘于口,食之而安于体,则莫不弃此而取彼矣。 今以夫先王之道,仁义之统,以相群居,以相持养,以相藩饰,以相安固邪。以夫 桀跖之道,是其为相县也,几直夫刍豢稻梁之县糟糠尔哉!然而人力为此,而寡为 彼,何也?曰:陋也。陋也者,天下之公患也,人之大殃大害也。故曰:仁者好告 示人。告之、示之、靡之、儇之、鈆之、重之,则夫塞者俄且通也,陋者俄且僩也, 愚者俄且知也。是若不行,则汤武在上曷益?桀纣在上曷损?汤武存,则天下从而 治,桀纣存,则天下从而乱。如是者,岂非人之情,固可与如此,可与如彼也哉!

  人之情,食欲有刍豢,衣欲有文绣,行欲有舆马,又欲夫余财蓄积之富也;然 而穷年累世不知不足,是人之情也。今人之生也,方知畜鸡狗猪彘,又蓄牛羊,然 而食不敢有酒肉;余刀布,有囷窌,然而衣不敢有丝帛;约者有筐箧之藏,然而行 不敢有舆马。是何也?非不欲也,几不长虑顾后,而恐无以继之故也?于是又节用 御欲,收歛蓄藏以继之也。是于己长虑顾后,几不甚善矣哉!今夫偷生浅知之属, 曾此而不知也,粮食大侈,不顾其后,俄则屈安穷矣。是其所以不免于冻饿,操瓢 囊为沟壑中瘠者也。况夫先王之道,仁义之统,诗书礼乐之分乎!彼固为天下之大 虑也,将为天下生民之属,长虑顾后而保万世也。其流长矣,其温厚矣,其功盛姚 远矣,非顺孰修为之君子,莫之能知也。故曰:短绠不可以汲深井之泉,知不几者 不可与及圣人之言。夫诗书礼乐之分,固非庸人之所知也。故曰:一之而可再也, 有之而可久也,广之而可通也,虑之而可安也,反鈆察之而俞可好也。以治情则利, 以为名则荣,以群则和,以独则足,乐意者其是邪!

  夫贵为天子,富有天下,是人情之所同欲也;然则从人之欲,则埶不能容,物 不能赡也。故先王案为之制礼义以分之,使有贵贱之等,长幼之差,知愚能不能之 分,皆使人载其事,而各得其宜。然后使谷禄多少厚薄之称,是夫群居和一之道也。 故仁人在上,则农以力尽田,贾以察尽财,百工以巧尽械器,士大夫以上至于公侯, 莫不以仁厚知能尽官职。夫是之谓至平。故或禄天下,而不自以为多,或监门御旅, 抱关击柝,而不自以为寡。故曰:“斩而齐,枉而顺,不同而一。”夫是之谓人伦。 诗曰:“受小共大共,为下国骏蒙。”此之谓也。

拼音版对照

  ?x xie zhe, ren zhi yang ye; gong jian zhe,?? ba? bingK xu xie zan?? ta? huang quanЪ bian?? bing9 yu ren shan yan, nuan yu bu bo; shang ren zhi yan, shen yu mao ji。 gu bo bo zhi di, bu de lv zhi, fei di bu an ye, wei zu wu suo lv zhe, fan zai yan ye。 ju tu ze rang, xiao tu ze dai, sui yu bu jin, ruo yun bu shi。

   kuai kuai er wang zhe、 nu ye, cha cha er can zhe、 zhi ye, bo er qiong zhe、 zi ye, qing zhi er yu zhuo zhe、 kou ye, huan zhi er yu ji zhe、 jiao ye, bian er bu shuo zhe、 zheng ye, zhi li er bu jian zhi zhe、 sheng ye, lian er bu jian gui zhe、 gui ye, yong er bu jian dan zhe、 tan ye, xin er bu jian jing zhe、 hao?? xing ye。 ci xiao ren zhi suo wu, er jun zi zhi suo bu wei ye。

   dou zhe, wang qi shen zhe ye, wang qi qin zhe ye, wang qi jun zhe ye。 xing qi shao qing zhi nu, er sang zhong shen zhi qu, ran qie wei zhi, shi wang qi shen ye; jia shi li can, qin qi bu mian hu xing lu, ran qie wei zhi, shi wang qi qin ye; jun shang zhi suo e ye, xing fa zhi suo da jin ye, ran qie wei zhi, shi wang qi jun ye。 you wang qi shen, nei wang qi qin, shang wang qi jun, shi xing fa zhi suo bu she ye, sheng wang zhi suo bu chu ye。 ru zhi chu hu, ru gou bu yuan you, bu wang qi qin ye。 ren ye, you wang qi shen, nei wang qi qin, shang wang qi jun, ze shi ren ye, er zeng gou zhi zhi bu ruo ye。

   fan dou zhe, bi zi yi wei shi, er yi ren wei fei ye。 ji cheng shi ye, ren cheng fei ye, ze shi ji jun zi, er ren xiao ren ye; yi jun zi yu xiao ren xiang zei hai ye, you yi wang qi shen, nei yi wang qi qin, shang yi wang qi jun, qi bu guo shen yi zai! shi ren ye, suo wei yi hu fu zhi ge? niu shi ye。 jiang yi wei zhi xie? ze yu mo da yan; jiang yi wei li xie? ze hai mo da yan; jiang yi wei rong xie? ze ru mo da yan; jiang yi wei an xie? ze wei mo da yan。 ren zhi you dou, he zai? wo yu shu zhi kuang huo ji bing xie? ze bu ke, sheng wang you zhu zhi。 wo yu shu zhi niao shu qin shou xie? ze you bu ke, qi xing ti you ren, er hao e duo tong。 ren zhi you dou, he zai? wo shen chou zhi。

   you gou zhi zhi yong zhe, you jia dao zhi yong zhe, you xiao ren zhi yong zhe, you shi jun zi zhi yong zhe。 zheng yin shi, wu lian chi, bu zhi shi fei, bu pi si shang, bu wei zhong qiang, mou mou ran wei li yin shi zhi jian, shi gou zhi zhi yong ye。 wei shi li, zheng huo cai, wu ci rang, guo gan er zhen, meng tan er li, mou mou ran wei li zhi jian, shi jia dao zhi yong ye。 qing si er bao, shi xiao ren zhi yong ye。 yi zhi suo zai, bu qing yu quan, bu gu qi li, ju guo er yu zhi bu wei gai shi, zhong si chi yi er bu rao, shi shi jun zi zhi yong ye。

  ?? zhe, fu yang zhi yu ye,? yu sha er si shui, ze wu dai yi。 gua yu huan er si jin, ze wu yi yi。 zi zhi zhe bu yuan ren, zhi ming zhe bu yuan tian; yuan ren zhe qiong, yuan tian zhe wu zhi。 shi zhi ji, fan zhi ren, qi bu yu hu zai!

   rong ru zhi da fen, an wei li hai zhi chang ti: xian yi er hou li zhe rong, xian li er hou yi zhe ru; rong zhe chang tong, ru zhe chang qiong; tong zhe chang zhi ren, qiong zhe chang zhi yu ren: shi rong ru zhi da fen ye。 cai que zhe chang an li, dang han zhe chang wei hai; an li zhe chang le yi, wei hai zhe chang you xian; le yi zhe chang shou chang, you xian zhe chang yao zhe: shi an wei li hai zhi chang ti ye。

   fu tian sheng zheng min, you suo yi qu zhi: zhi yi zhi xiu, de xing zhi hou, zhi lv zhi ming, shi tian zi zhi suo yi qu tian xia ye。 zheng ling fa, ju cuo shi, ting duan gong, shang ze neng shun tian zi zhi ming, xia ze neng bao bai xing, shi zhu hou zhi suo yi qu guo jia ye。 zhi xing xiu, lin guan zhi, shang ze neng shun shang, xia ze neng bao qi zhi, shi shi da fu zhi suo yi qu tian yi ye。 xun fa ze、 du liang、 xing pi、 tu ji、 bu zhi qi yi, jin shou qi shu, shen bu gan sun yi ye; fu zi xiang chuan, yi chi wang gong, shi gu san dai sui wang, zhi fa you cun, shi guan ren bai li zhi suo yi qu lu zhi ye。 xiao di yuan que,? lu ji li, yi dun bi qi shi ye, er bu gan dai ao, shi shu ren zhi suo yi qu nuan yi bao shi, chang sheng jiu shi, yi mian yu xing lu ye。 shi xie shuo, wen jian yan, wei yi shi, tao dan tu dao, ti han?x bao, yi tou sheng fan ce yu luan shi zhi jian, shi jian ren zhi suo yi qu wei ru si xing ye。 qi lv zhi bu shen, qi ze zhi bu jin, qi ding qu she??K, shi qi suo yi wei ye。

   cai xing zhi neng, jun zi xiao ren yi ye; hao rong e ru, hao li e hai, shi jun zi xiao ren zhi suo tong ye; ruo qi suo yi qiu zhi zhi dao ze yi yi: xiao ren ye zhe, ji wei dan er yu ren zhi xin ji ye, ji wei zha er yu ren zhi qin ji ye, qin shou zhi xing er yu ren zhi shan ji ye; lv zhi nan zhi ye, xing zhi nan an ye, chi zhi nan li ye, cheng ze bi bu de qi suo hao, bi yu qi suo e yan。 gu jun zi zhe, xin yi, er yi yu ren zhi xin ji ye; zhong yi, er yi yu ren zhi qin ji ye; xiu zheng zhi bian yi, er yi yu ren zhi shan ji ye; lv zhi yi zhi ye, xing zhi yi an ye, chi zhi yi li ye, cheng ze bi de qi suo hao, bi bu yu qi suo e yan。 shi gu qiong ze bu yin, tong ze da ming, shen si er ming mi bai。 xiao ren mo bu yan jing ju zhong er yuan yue:“ zhi lv cai xing, gu you yi xian ren yi。” fu bu zhi qi yu ji wu yi yi ye。 ze jun zi zhu cuo zhi dang, er xiao ren zhu cuo zhi guo ye。 gu shu cha xiao ren zhi zhi neng, zu yi zhi qi you yu, ke yi wei jun zi zhi suo wei ye。 pi zhi yue ren an yue, chu ren an chu, jun zi an ya。 shi fei zhi neng cai xing ran ye, shi zhu cuo xi su zhi jie yi ye。 ren yi de xing, chang an zhi shu ye, ran er wei bi bu wei ye; wu?K tu dao, chang wei zhi shu ye, ran er wei bi bu an ye。 gu jun zi dao qi chang, er xiao ren dao qi guai。

   fan ren you suo yi tong: ji er yu shi, han er yu nuan, lao er yu xi, hao li er e hai, shi ren zhi suo sheng er you ye, shi wu dai er ran zhe ye, shi yu jie zhi suo tong ye。 mu bian bai hei mei e, er bian sheng yin qing zhuo, kou bian suan xian gan ku, bi bian fen fang xing sao, gu ti fu li bian han shu ji yang, shi you ren zhi suo chang sheng er you ye, shi wu dai er ran zhe ye, shi yu jie zhi suo tong ye。 ke yi wei yao yu, ke yi wei jie zhi, ke yi wei gong jiang, ke yi wei nong jia, zai? su⒋ dong ba zi????J qie zhi su???? xing bo? qiao sou?? hui ji bo? qie kan kang??? bing wei yao yu ze chang an rong, wei jie zhi ze chang wei ru; wei yao yu ze chang yu yi, wei gong jiang nong jia ze chang fan lao; ran er ren li wei ci, er gua wei bi, he ye? yue: lou ye。 yao yu zhe, fei sheng er ju zhe ye, fu qi yu bian gu, cheng hu xiu wei, dai jin er hou bei zhe ye。 ren zhi sheng gu xiao ren, wu shi wu fa ze wei li zhi jian er。 ren zhi sheng gu xiao ren, you yi yu luan shi, de luan su, shi yi xiao zhong xiao ye, yi luan de luan ye。 jun zi fei de? sou yue jiu?? zhi chen sha kai nei yan。 jin shi ren zhi kou fu, an zhi li yi? an zhi ci rang? an zhi lian chi yu ji? yi?? dao? kui? man er bao yi yi。 ren wu shi wu fa, ze qi xin zheng qi kou fu ye。 jin shi ren sheng er wei chang du chu huan dao liang ye, wei shu huo zao kang zhi wei du, ze yi zhi zu wei zai ci ye, e er can ran you bing chu huan dao liang er zhi zhe, ze? ran shi zhi yue: ci he guai ye? bi chou zhi er? jue yi qian?⒅?? shi kuang zhong? chi?? can e dan? you? huang? shuo?” sou yin jin yi fu xian wang zhi dao, ren yi zhi tong, yi xiang qun ju, yi xiang chi yang, yi xiang fan shi, yi xiang an gu xie。 yi fu jie zhi zhi dao, shi qi wei xiang xian ye, ji zhi fu chu huan dao liang zhi xian zao kang er zai! ran er ren li wei ci, er gua wei bi, he ye? yue: lou ye。 lou ye zhe, tian xia zhi gong huan ye, ren zhi da yang da hai ye。 gu yue: ren zhe hao gao shi ren。 gao zhi、 shi zhi、 mi zhi、 xuan zhi、? zhi、 zhong zhi, ze fu sai zhe e qie tong ye, lou zhe e qie?g ye, yu zhe e qie zhi ye。 shi ruo bu xing, ze tang wu zai shang he yi? jie zhou zai shang he sun? tang wu cun, ze tian xia cong er zhi, jie zhou cun, ze tian xia cong er luan。 ru shi zhe, qi fei ren zhi qing, gu ke yu ru ci, ke yu ru bi ye zai!

   ren zhi qing, shi yu you chu huan, yi yu you wen xiu, xing yu you yu ma, you yu fu yu cai xu ji zhi fu ye; ran er qiong nian lei shi bu zhi bu zu, shi ren zhi qing ye。 jin ren zhi sheng ye, fang zhi chu ji gou zhu zhi, you xu niu yang, ran er shi bu gan you jiu rou; yu dao bu, you? qin?, ran er yi bu gan you si bo; yue zhe you kuang qie zhi zang, ran er xing bu gan you yu ma。 shi he ye? fei bu yu ye, ji bu chang lv gu hou, er kong wu yi ji zhi gu ye? yu shi you jie yong yu yu, shou?a xu zang yi ji zhi ye。 shi yu ji chang lv gu hou, ji bu shen shan yi zai! jin fu tou sheng qian zhi zhi shu, zeng ci er bu zhi ye, liang shi da chi, bu gu qi hou, e ze qu an qiong yi。 shi qi suo yi bu mian yu dong e, cao piao nang wei gou he zhong ji zhe ye。 kuang fu xian wang zhi dao, ren yi zhi tong, shi shu li le zhi fen hu! bi gu wei tian xia zhi da lv ye, jiang wei tian xia sheng min zhi shu, chang lv gu hou er bao wan shi ye。 qi liu chang yi, qi wen hou yi, qi gong sheng yao yuan yi, fei shun shu xiu wei zhi jun zi, mo zhi neng zhi ye。 gu yue: duan geng bu ke yi ji shen jing zhi quan, zhi bu ji zhe bu ke yu ji sheng ren zhi yan。 fu shi shu li le zhi fen, gu fei yong ren zhi suo zhi ye。 gu yue: yi zhi er ke zai ye, you zhi er ke jiu ye, guang zhi er ke tong ye, lv zhi er ke an ye, fan? cha zhi er yu ke hao ye。 yi zhi qing ze li, yi wei ming ze rong, yi qun ze he, yi du ze zu, le yi zhe qi shi xie!

   fu gui wei tian zi, fu you tian xia, shi ren qing zhi suo tong yu ye; ran ze cong ren zhi yu, ze? shun huang xian jin? bu neng shan ye。 gu xian wang an wei zhi zhi li yi yi fen zhi, shi you gui jian zhi deng, chang you zhi cha, zhi yu neng bu neng zhi fen, jie shi ren zai qi shi, er ge de qi yi。 ran hou shi gu lu duo shao hou bo zhi cheng, shi fu qun ju he yi zhi dao ye。 gu ren ren zai shang, ze nong yi li jin tian, jia yi cha jin cai, bai gong yi qiao jin xie qi, shi da fu yi shang zhi yu gong hou, mo bu yi ren hou zhi neng jin guan zhi。 fu shi zhi wei zhi ping。 gu huo lu tian xia, er bu zi yi wei duo, huo jian men yu lv, bao guan ji tuo, er bu zi yi wei gua。 gu yue:“ zhan er qi, wang er shun, bu tong er yi。” fu shi zhi wei ren lun。 shi yue:“ shou xiao gong da gong, wei xia guo jun meng。” ci zhi wei ye。

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